Ultrasound diagnostics

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Ultrasound diagnostics

Ultrasound diagnostic uses the high frequency ultrasound waves for the visualization of inner organs and / or parts of a body. It is a safe method, with no radiation risk.

Well trained and experienced specialists provide the following ultrasound diagnostic services:

Color Doppler Scan of the blood vessels in extremities (CDS)

CDS arteria in legs is indicated when peripheral arterial disease (atherosclerosis) is suspected. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is very common in general population. PAD gradually narrows blood vessel and thus decreases the blood flow. CDS helps to determine degree and the extent of the arterial stenosis or occlusion.  CDS finding helps decision making about further diagnostic and treatment.

CDS is recommended when patient complains on leg pain or cramps, if there are changes in skin color or temperature of the foot (extreme paleness, cold, pins and needles), if pedal pulses are weakened or absent and in case of ulcers. All of these can be signs of the arterial deterioration.

CDS is also recommended if person has risk factors such as: high blood pressure, angina pectoris, and changes in hearth rhythm, diabetes, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and family history (stroke, health attack).

CDS of veins evaluates both degree and extent of varicose veins, and also thrombi in either superficial or deep veins system. It is beneficial diagnostic in the following conditions and situations:

  • heavy legs, legs fatigue and cramps, especially at the end of a day, in summer months and with prolonged sitting and standing);
  •  in patients referred for rehabilitation after the injury or operation, if there is leg edema
  •  edema in pregnancy
  •  prior to major surgery, such as hip replacement;
  •  prior to commencement of the lymphedema treatment

Duration of CDS exam is 30 minutes.

CDS arteria and veins in arms is indicated when patients complain on cold arms / hands,

changes in skin color, numbness, edema and heaviness or a sudden pain.

Duration of CDS exam is 30 minutes.


Color Doppler Scan (CDS) of blood vessels in neck

CDS of blood vessels in neck is recommended for patients with risk factors such as: high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking. Family history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases is also important.

CDS of blood vessels in neck is also recommended for persons who have some of the following symptoms:

  • vertigo, syncope, fatigue, lack of gait balance;
  • transient vision dysfunction, slurred spech or inability to speak
  • psychological symptoms such as confusion, transient global amnesia;
  • impairment of cranial nerves, occipital headache or the combination of the previous symptoms

Duration of CDS exam is 30 minutes.

Transcranial Color Doppler exam – TCCD

Transcranial Color Doppler (TCCD) is intended for evaluation of the brain blood vessels. This examination is important in patients to whom we diagnosed extensive changes on blood vessels in the neck. TCCD measures the blood flow through the anterior, middle and posterior brain arteria. Blood vessels are evaluated through the cranial openings, such as eye and occipital windows.

Duration of TCCD exam is 20 minutes.


Ultrasound examination of abdomen

Ultrasound examination of abdomen provides a detailed insight in the size and structure of liver, spleen, pancreas, biliary system (gallbladder and routes), kidneys and suprarenal glands. It also enables visualization of abdominal aorta, bladder and prostate in men.

Preparation for the US examination of abdomen consists of food abstinence for 6 to 8 hours, best for 12 hours, prior to examination. However, in urgent cases, the US exam of abdomen is done without the prior preparation.

Duration of CDS exam is 20 to 30 minutes.


Ultrasound examination of abdominal aorta

Ultrasound examination can easily reveal aneurism (dilatation of thoracic and abdominal aorta), which is more common in older men, especially smokers. The examination is recommended in patients with risk factors such as: hypertension (particularly long-term uncontrolled hypertension), hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and positive family history.

Duration of the US exam is 20 minutes.


Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland

Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland is a simple and noninvasive method for visualization of the position, structure and shape of a thyroid gland as well as irregularities such as nodes, cysts, inflammatory changes, tumors).

Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland is recommended for persons who have the following symptoms: excessive sweating, nervousness, accelerated digestion, weight loss, elevated hearth rate, swelling difficulties and fatigue.

Duration of the US exam is 20 minutes.


Ultrasound examination of soft tissues and joints

Ultrasound of soft tissues and joints is painless, noninvasive method for evaluation of musculoskeletal structures: muscles, joints, tendons, burses, ligaments.

Indications for the soft tissues ultrasound are often present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, tendinitis or when there are:

• acute or chronic joint pain

• acute or chronic muscle or tendons pain;

• muscle trauma, palpable masses or “holes” in muscles;

• tendon stretching or pain with movement, reduced range of movements in the joint etc.

It is possible to diagnose effusion or bleeding in the joint (trauma, most commonly in the knee joint, ankle and elbow), as well as muscle ruptures (partial or total) with hematoma and rupture of

visible ligaments.

US examination can reveal cartilage damage or bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis, long before these are visible on the X-ray.

US examination is useful in detecting the inflammatory changes in tendons and burses in extra- articular rheumatism.


Duration of the US exam is 30 minutes.


Ultrasound examination of hips in babies Ultrasound examination of hips in babies is painless and noninvasive method used for skinning on the developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). In the Institute „Dr Miroslav Zotović“ this method has a 25 years tradition. If DDH is detected early, the treatment is conservative.

Protocol includes three US exams of baby’s hips at:

• one (1) month of age

• three (3) months of age

• six (6) months of age


 Duration of the US exam is 10 minutes.






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